Tag Archives: Family Life

What’s Causing My Shoulder Pain?

BY CASSANDRA DENHARTOG

This is always a difficult question, due to numerous problems that could happen and the fact that the shoulder is made up of several boney, muscular, and ligamentous structures. Let’s start off with a little anatomy review.

The shoulder is made up of three large muscles collectively called the deltoids, 4 rotator cuff muscles, and several other muscles.

The deltoids individually are the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and posterior deltoid. These muscles help the arm with flexion (moving forward), abduction (taking the arm away from the body), and extension (bringing the arm back behind the body).

Four muscles together make up the rotator cuff.This is commonly, incorrectly, called the rotatorcup or rotary cup. The rotator cuff is made up ofthe supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. Together they stabilize the shoulder, hold the head of the humerus into the glenoid cavity, and maintain the shoulder joint.

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Bilingualism and Special Needs

BY MILLIE SLAVIDOU

Anyone with a child being brought up in a bilingual home tends to learn early on that they need to grow a thick skin. There will be comments about their child’s development, about being behind at skill, about how useful the minority language will be, and even from professionals, such as teachers, there is frequently a lot of negativity.

So imagine how much worse all of this can be when the child in the bilingual environment has special needs. Even without the bilingual element, when a child has special needs, the parents are suddenly surrounded by experts, from the person on the street or in the supermarket, to well-meaning friends and relatives. Everyone but everyone feels a need to voice an opinion, and in the case of special needs, the social attitude towards bilingualism is overwhelmingly negative.

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